Recommendations originates from Robert Hoberman (personal communication). That it seems to be broadly user of the Jewish dialects out-of a number of other towns and cities with the region also, and additionally Aqra and you can Rawanduz.
But not, contained in this dialect discover an incredibly unusual transform of h so you can h on third individual singular possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’
Azerbaijan (Azer): What of your Jews out-of Iranian Azerbaijan, together with communities into the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you will Yuksekova. Data is out-of Garbell (1965).
Halabja (Hala): The words of one’s Jews out-of Halabja for the Iran-Iraq border. This is extremely close to the Jewish dialects of one’s most other towns and cities of one’s area, and additionally Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you will Panjwin. Information is inspired by my notes.
We are going to compare these types of languages regarding twenty-four phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you will lexical conditions. After the Hetzron (1976, 98), i’ve chose simply innovations because the criteria getting classification. We have chose an excellent disproportionate quantity of morphological criteria, and then we will provide them with unique lbs, once again after the Hetzron, however, almost every other mutual designs is considered as really.
Notice and the more challenging conservation and also installation out of during the Koy Sanjaq said by Hoberman (1985)
Even as we compare the dialects regarding NENA we shall just be sure to influence new the quantity that the brand new dialects express a definite development and this differs from Turoyo and you will Mandaic. At the same time, we shall pick bundles out of isoglosses within NENA.
(1) Fret could be penultimate in all the NA languages, and Turoyo and Mandaic but not about three easternmost Jewish dialects, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you may Halabja, which often be concerned the last syllable. Such dialects take a look, in this way, as with a lot more (Garbell 1965), showing an unusually good influence away from Kurdish.
(2) All of the NENA languages possess matched h and you can x. When you look at the Hertevin as a result, h, and you will almost everywhere otherwise it is x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]good ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you can +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)
Both Turoyo and you can Mandaic keep independent h and you can x. Certain NENA languages provides reintroduced h since the a credit out of Kurdish otherwise Arabic or regarding Classical Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) not, the latest passed down code consistently reveals x. Like, within the Tisqopa you’ll find lent Arabic terms and conditions, eg sahabi ‘friend’, that have h, however, passed on terms for example laxma ‘bread’ continuously reveal x. (6)
(3) The NENA languages except Hertevin and you will Zakho have forfeit really times regarding passed down. Such as for instance, during the Aradhin we discover arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ corresponding to Syriac arb an excellent and you may afra. From inside the Hertevin as well as in Zakho, handed down was regularly ?: Hertevin thus?good ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 189). In lot of most other languages most are kept because the ?, and, regarding rest, is gone completely. Specific languages provides reintroduced lent of Arabic otherwise Kurdish. Such as, Halabja features ayza ‘good’.
(4) During the before languages out-of Aramaic, such as Tiberian Hebrew, t turned [Theta] just after a great vowel. It alternation might have been lexicalized during the NENA, having sometimes t otherwise [Theta] distributed courtesy whole paradigms, whether or not preceded by the an effective vowel or perhaps not. Such as for instance, when you look at the Aradhin brand new verb ‘come’ is now offering [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, and in addition [Theta]e:los angeles ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Then, in a number of languages the fresh phoneme [Theta] features undergone additional changes. In some dialects [Theta] features blended back into t, along with others it is s if not l.(7) In a single dialect, Jilu, it has become h right after which been erased except at the start of a keyword. The three easternmost Jewish languages display the fresh new shocking shift out-of [Theta] to a single. The results of them change can be seen on the word ‘house’ and this seems in almost any languages because the feel:[Thetan effective]a great (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you can besa (Sanandaj Christian).